Recently I’ve been updating a lot of tests. I’ve been switching out Dingus for Mock as well as updating tests that were slow or unclear. It has been a good experience because it has forced me to look at old tests and mocking techniques and compare them directly with newer code that utilized mocks more effectively. I’ve come up with a couple best practices to help avoid some mistakes I made initially.
First off, avoid mocking. The ideal situation is that you’ve written code in such a way that you never need to mock anything because the code has been designed to be isolated and modular. As soon as you start to deal with I/O this become extremely difficult, but as a general rule of thumb, try running the code rather than mocking.
Secondly, be careful what you mock. One reason to mock is to help isolate code under test. If you find yourself mocking a ton of objects and asserting complex sets of methods were called, then that is a red flag that your code could be refactored. If you think of mocking as a means of providing a barrier between code under test and the code that you know works, it becomes slightly clearer when to mock. Your goal should be to mock the point at which the code under test is accessing code that you assume is working correctly. For example, when you write tests, you don’t test things supported by Python. Your assumption is that things like opening files or sockets work correctly. When you are mocking, the same distinction should be made and that is the point where a mock will be most helpful.
Finally, mock only one level deep. Specifically related to databases, there is usually some namespaces that databases provide. MongoDB, for example, provides a database, which contains collections, that contain the actual documents. The API then provides access via similar nesting.
When mocking this type of connection, don’t try to mock the connection.
Instead mock the point where the query is actually made. Generally, this makes the mock much simpler and it also makes the assertion solely based on the query rather than the setup necessary to connect to the database and find the namespace you will be using.
Hopefully these tips help avoid some mistakes that I made when I first started trying to use mocks. Using these simple guidelines has made using mocks much easier. It has also helped to improve and simplify the code, which is partially the point of writing tests. Good luck and happy mocking!