Functional Programming in Python

While Python doesn’t natively support some essential traits of an actual functional programming language, it is possible to use a functional style (rather than object oriented) to write programs. What makes it hard is that some of the constraints functional programming requires must be followed done manually.

First off, lets talk about what Python does well that makes functional programming possible.

Python has first class functions that allow passing a function around the same way that you’d pass around a normal variable. First class functions make it possible to do things like currying and complex list processing. Fortunately, the standard library provides the excellent functools library. For example

>>> from functools import partial
>>> def add(x, y): return x + y
>>> add_five = partial(add, 5)
>>> map(add_five, [10, 20, 30])
[15, 25, 35]

The next thing critical functional tool that Python provides is iteration. More specifically, Python generators provide a tool to process data lazily. Generators allow to you create functions that can create data on demand rather than forcing the creation of an entire set. Again, the standard library provides some helpful tools via the itertools library.

>>> from itertools import count, imap, islice
>>> nums = islice(imap(add_five, count(10, 10)), 0, 3)
>>> nums
<itertools.islice object at 0xb7cf6dc4>

In this example each of the functions only calculates and returns a value when it is required.

Python also has other functional concepts built in such as list comprehensions and decorators that when used with first class functions and generators makes programming a functional style feasible.

Where Python does not make functional programming easy is dealing with immutable data. In Python, critical core datatypes such as lists and dicts are mutable. In functional languages, all variables are immutable. The result is you often create value based on some initial immutable variable that then has functions applied to it.

(defn add-markup [price]
  (+ price (* .25 price)))

(defn add-tax [total]
  (+ total (* .087 total)))

(defn get-total [initial-price]
  (add-tax (add-markup initial-price)))

In each of the steps above, the argument is passed in by value and can’t be changed. When you need to use the total described from get-total, rather than storing it in a variable, you’d often times always call the get-total function. Typically a functional language will optimize these calls. In Python we can mimic this by memoizing the result.

import functools
import operator

def memoize(f):
    cache = {}
    def wrapper(*args, **kw):
        key = (args, sorted(kw.iteritems()))
        if key not in cache:
            cache[key] = f(*args, **kw)
        return cache[key]
    return wrapper

def factorial(num):
    return reduce(operator.mul, range(1, num + 1))

Now, calls to the function will re-use previous results without having to execute the body of the function.

Another pattern seen in functional languages such as LISP is to re-use a core data type, such as a list, as a richer object. For example, associates lists act like dictionaries in Python, but they are essentially still just lists that have functions to access them as a dictionary such that you can access random keys. In other functional languages such as haskell or clojure, you create actual types that are similar to a struct to communicate more complex type information.

Obviously in Python we have actual objects. The problem is that objects are mutable. In order to make sure we’re using immutable types we can use Python’s immutable data type, the tuple. What’s more, we can replicate richer types by using a named tuple.

from collections import namedtuple

User = namedtuple('User', ['name', 'email', 'password'])

def update_password(user, new_password):
    return User(,, new_password)

I’ve found that using named tuples often helps close the mental gap of going from object oriented to a functional style.

While Python is most definitely not a functional language, it has many tools that make using a functional paradigm possible. Functional programming can be a powerful model to consider as there are a whole class of bugs that disappear in an immutable world. Functional programming is also a great change of pace from the typical object oriented patterns you might be used to. Even if you don’t refactor all your code to a functional style, there is much to learn, and fortunately, Python makes it easy to get started in a language you are familiar with.